The Shame of the Nation by Jonathan Kozol book Review

Jonathan Kozol has been writing books similar to "The Shame of the Nation," also Kozol visited approximately 60 schools, and Jonathan Kozol has several good reviews, news, and features in The New York Times Book Review.

Jonathan Kozol has written other mind boggling books similar to The Shame of the Nation since "Death at an Early Age."

Kozol is persistent and a true civil rights activist. Kozol’s passion for civil right activist was aroused 40 years ago, when he began teaching in Boston school. Kozol was concerned on the conditions under which poor minorities children are educated and hence she views the poor minorities children as trapped uniformly in old schools that are in poor repair, disgraceful toilets, overcrowded, inadequately supplied with qualified teachers and proper teaching materials.

Several themes have been explored that are focused on the heartache of the parents and children of the black and brown who are poor and the challenges and struggle the teachers who teach those minority schools endure. To name a few of the themes that are covered by the Shame of the Nation  are; endurance, dynamic of race and ethnic groups, prejudice, politics, funding education system, power, poverty, influence of money, housing and school zoning, gender, resistance to change, and government policies and their ramifications.

Some of other themes are; the struggle for racial and economic equality and undefeated educators who persistently stand against the odds, the wealthy parents and how they have carved out niches of privileges for their children, American business and poor minority children and how they are slotted to training for low-status careers and jobs.

The book explores in details segregated education in America and necessity to Integration of education in America.

Five years before writing of “The Shame of the Nation," in 30 school districts, Kozol, visited approximately 60 schools in 11 states. Some of the schools that Kozol visited were in the South Bronx, and he became acquitted with their teachers, many of their students, and their principals. And with a special bond with the teachers and students, Kozol dedicates the “The Shame of the Nation," to a teacher in one such school.

Shame of the Nation, Dishonoring the Dead and Hitting Them Hardest When They are Small shows a grueling pictured of the segregation and its effects on the minorities.Dishonoring the Dead shows that despite the tireless work of Brown vs. Board of Education and Dr. King, it is not surprising that the schools today seems segregated.

Several schools are mostly minority or white and a schools that have mixed students from different backgrounds is hard even though schools always try to give minority students confidence that they can do anything and be anything they want in life if they work hard for it. However, the society does not believe that minority students can achieve anything in life due to segregation. The author noted that like the schools that were deeply segregated 25 or 30 years ago in Bronx are still segregated today. According to Kozol, the students attending minority schools accounts for almost three fourths of Latinos and blacks’ students. (Pg. 18)

The author shows that segregation has not improved for several years by using an example of a school in Los Angeles that bears the name of Dr. King, 99 percent of the Hispanic and black students attend this school and also in Milwaukee that has 99 percent of the enrollment. (Pg. 24)

The minority students are not properly incorporated with the white students according to the high percentage in the schools of teaching the students of color. Even though Dr. King put so much effort tying to eliminate segregation, it is shameful that schools bearing his name are extremely segregated.

Separating the white children from black children of the same age and with the same school qualification levels because of their skin color can generate a feeling of inferiority in their minds and in the community in many years to come and the damage cannot be easily undone. (Pg. 29)

The high poverty level in the minority’s schools means that minority children do not have adequate tools to learn current technology and even catch up with the updated textbooks. Hence, students from minority schools can be uncomfortable in the class environment and less likely to focus on education and learning. This condition of not focusing in the class room can make children feel inferior and lead to low self-confidence which can lead to lower goals accomplishment.

When the minority students have low confidence is view as the incantations in the schools of Hispanic and black children are not willing to try enough to succeed and failing to believe that they have the same abilities just like the white children who are coming from privileged schools. (Pg. 35)

 According to the author, it is hard for teachers and community around minority students to convince the students from minority communities that they can learn when these minority students are cordoned off by their own society that has not faith in minority students. (Pg. 37) Therefore, it is hard for minority children to learn when the society around them is constantly is constantly discoursing them.

Chapter two is about the Hitting Them Hardest When They’re Small; and is focusing on money as an issue in schools and most students are not treated the same. For example, private schools get more money unlike the public schools which implies that private school children are worth more than the children who attend public schools.  According to the author, there are cheap children and expensive children just as there are cheap women and expensive women. In fact, even the public students know that they are not treated equally as compared to their private children. Hence, the children attending public schools are not valued as much as the once attending private schools. (Pg. 43)

The author gave some few examples of the children thoughts on how children are not treated equally. For example, Elizabeth a third grader in the Bronx says that it not fair that other kids have a garden and new things but they don't have those things in her school. (Pg. 40)

And also Alliyah a third grader in the Bronx says that you have all the thing and we do not have all the things that other schools have...Can you help us? (Pg. 39)

The author suggests that the Inequality seems like it is not an intentional thing. The inequality normally starts at infant and toddler years when children in from low-income neighborhoods are deprived of opportunities for preschool education due to budgetary choices of the government while the children from privileged communities are given the best opportunities and rich developments in their early education. (Pg. 48-51)


The Head Start Federal Program that was created by Congress to expand opportunities for low income communities. In 2001, forty percent of the 3 to 4-year-old students who qualified to be "Head Start" were denied High Stakes Tests which was used to determine who was going to get to move to the next level. Also, the author shows that third grade children who have had more schooling were twice more likely to pass the test than those who have been denied the opportunity Head Start Federal Program that was passed by congress.

For those children who are denied the opportunity are still held accountable for the test conclusion and the author notes that a parent in a wealthy district in Ohio told the author that, we will not Play Little League this way when she was reflecting on the inequalities of education funding in Ohio state and we should be embarrassed and feel ashamed for destroying kinds lives. (Pg. 55)

The author shows that the nation can afford to give clean places and green spaces. However, we refuse to offer these opportunities and continue to insist that our refusal can be justified by explanations like periods of fiscal crisis and insufficiency of funds. Hence, keeping children at a distance makes it easier for us to maintain this myth. (Pg. 62)

Chapter three is about the Ordering Regime which continues to emphasize on what Kozol had discussed in chapter one and two on how schools are re-segregated and how it re-segregation is affecting the classroom environment in most schools. The government and school boards are enforcing the Success for All curriculum in order to properly set adequate materials and ensure that standards and goals are met.

The Success for All curriculum was designed for low-income urban students in order to meet requirements for state and standardized testing requirements. However, the Success for All curriculum requires that the teachers should follow it just like a theatrical script and hence does not give teachers a leeway to accommodate any changes that might arise in different schools.

The classes are also timed to ensure that the teachers and students are able to cover the materials according to the curriculum. The classes normally achieve these requirements due to low student participation rate in class.

Under these tight conditions, teachers will disagree with the curriculum but will choose to stay in the teaching profession for the children’s sake.

The teachers disagree with the treachery the curriculum seems to hold, but stay for the children's sake. Some of the objectives that the students should learn during the course are; Active listening, learning accountable talk, mastery of narrative procedure, learning of noteworthy questions, able to form meaningful sentences, word mastery, and everyday vocabulary.

Kozol shows that nearly the whole school day is a matter of unnatural theatrics that cannot be improved or changed to any new experience without the risk of teachers being criticized by their superiors.  Kozol continues that people who wrote the curriculum will normally come into the classroom also to police the way that the curriculum was being used. (Pg. 72-73)

An example is given where a student teacher at an urban school in California, wanted to bring a pumpkin to her class on Halloween but knew it had no ascertainable connection to the California standards period. She therefore had developed what she called 'the MultiModal Pumpkin Unit' to teach science (seeds) arithmetic and language art. The teacher was afraid that she will be criticized because the pumpkin will not help the students to achieve expected targets on state exams. (Pg. 80)

Curriculum policing is designed to make sure that the teachers do not deviate from the curriculum. This kind of policing is horrific for the teachers and boring for the children..., which Kozol calls an intellectual straightjacket." (Pg. 85)

Chapter four is about Preparing Minds for Markets. The scripted teaching method in kindergarten that is 93% black or Hispanic called “Practice Active Listening” has been in place for a long time in Columbus, Ohio. In addition, the program of training of young kids is explicitly used to train children for modern markets. The administrators have flooded the hallways with Help Wanted posters and also the lists of management positions by the administrators who are concerned about their students' futures.

Application forms for positions such as "Form-Collector Manager" or "Reading Manager" are filled by students and this method is pervasive.  The “School-to-work” is the unflinching designation that is used to fulfill these goals, and “industry-embedded education” for the children of minority is now a term of art that is used amongst the practitioners.

It is surprising that those who champion for school-to-work generally do not describe school-to-work as a race-specific project. For example, in most suburban schools, the school-to-work idea, when spoken or used by educators at all, is perceived as a decoration on the outer edges of a liberal curriculum. However, in many urban schools, school-to-work idea has come to be the energizing tool of almost every aspect of instruction.

Kozol has realized that business jargon is spreading into schools through the usage of words like "taking ownership," "negotiating," or behavior "contracts." Apparently, successful business ventures are used as a model for schools children, and may not be healthy for children.

He continues that business leaders need "team players” and notes that being a good “Team player” may be obviously essential in the military services and also importance in the operation of a corporation business; but a healthy nation also “needs its future poets, prophets, ribald satirists, and maddening iconoclasts at least as much as it needs people who will file in a perfect line to an objective they are told they cannot question” (Pg. 106)

Chapter five deals with The Road to Rome and indicates that in some schools, the tests preparations and taking test controls more than a quarter of the school year. The only explanation that the administrators normally give as to why they are giving test to children in the elementary years is that the test will show their teachers the place where the kind is weak so that the teachers can redirect their attention of their work in order to better serve their kids.

In real life situation, however, this is not the way things normally work, because taking of these tests and receiving of scores always takes a long time. Kozol noticed that the “Test-mandated holdover policies have chilling effects and every time we keep a child over, child’s odds of graduating anytime in the future is substantially reduced.

In most of these schools, traditional subjects such as history, geography, and science are no rarely taught because these traditional subjects are not tested by high-stakes examinations and also, they do not contribute to the scores that can praise or fault a school’s performance.

The recess banishment from the normal schooldays is the final penurious denial. For example, in In Atlanta, recess has been systematically eradicated to get more time for test-related programs since 1990s.

The teachers are constantly trying to integrate curriculum so that children can learn what is in the social studies and science curriculum.  It is shameful that a student in New York did not know the name of their country!  This is embarrassing and it is a clear picture of the effects of the teachers who are busy following their “scripts” and are trying whole heartedly to bring up test scores in schools.  However, a student called Anthony, who despite having horrible test taking skills, managed to get into a prestigious boarding school and was able to beat the odds. Therefore, Kozol recognized Anthony as an intelligent individual who, as a young boy, was thinking outside the box. Kozol seems to be determined and caring, by keeping up with minority children for many years and tries to do all he can to help them.

Chapter six is about A Hardening of Lines and shows the demarcations of sharper lines between children of minorities and children the privileged children on education quality. Kozol notes the embodiment among the privileged who are determined to isolate their children from more than token numbers of the children of minorities. In addition, in some cities, young middle-class white families have been successfully pressured their school boards to isolate almost wholly separate provinces of education so that their children cannot attend school with minority children.

It is depressing and unbelievable that some of the inner city schools are overcrowded and in a state of disrepair. Kozol spoke of one school in the Bronx was built to hold only 1,800 students but had 3400 students enrolled. He also added that class sizes are too big and has too many students per classroom. The principal says that that even if the school had more teachers; the school would not have enough places to put the children due to lack of space. Kozol also noted that the girls in academic classes were more involved in working on their lessons, because the boys were so far behind grade level that they could not read well enough to understand the material in their school.

It is sad that only 15% of the students at one of the school who began ninth grade there met the requirements for graduation! The rate of drop out was so high.

Chapter seven describes Excluding Beauty  depicts the insult to nature of art and with judgments concerning beauty, the outrage to cleanliness and harmony and sweetness, are constant realities as well for children who have go every morning into morbid-looking classrooms in which few adults other than their teachers would accept to work day by day.

In chapter seven, it begins with a description of a writing assignment by which the author was criticized.  The writing assignment was supposed to be what the students "saw in front of them each day when they came into school, liked, and did not like in the class, or in the school, and were supposed to write how they felt in about the situation in which they had found themselves in” (Pg. 161). Their writing clearly told a story, a story of, broken surroundings, dirty, and general squalor that they saw day by day. 

Kozol stresses that there are no measures of general happiness or contentment for students anywhere and even the standardized test cannot paint a picture of what the inner-city children faces each and every day. Kozol adds that the problem is not only confined to New York City schools; later in the chapter, Kozol describes a Los Angeles school that is infested with rodent and students are getting sick due to dead rats.  Also, most of the schools with a high percentage of Hispanic and black children have uncertified staff teachers who are waiting to leave for employment to other schools with better conditions.

Elsewhere in Los Angeles school are feeding a huge student population in small facilities that were never designed for large numbers of students.  Also, in Freemont High School in Los Angeles have 15 fewer bathrooms than the law requires and for those few that are working are lacking basic supplies (Pg. 177)

The students are not given an option to take college preparatory course, but are force to take hair-dressing and sewing in order to graduate from high school. If all the other elective classes that a student wants to take in order to graduate are full, students are required to take  hair-dressing or sewing classes if the student wants to graduate" (Pg. 179).

Kozol shows that there are several problems even when the students are carrying more academic classes; inferior equipments and problems with library access, shortage of space, and poor or low staffing are constant issues for students. Kozol argues that even though for many years it used to be black kids who faced discrimination, now the Hispanic, and the low income Southeast Asian students cannot get into the same classes with white and middle class children.

Chapter eight explores False Promises. In this chapter Kozol tells the reader about a timeline since the 60s of major attempts to correct racial inequalities in our nation's school.  Kozol talks about the Higher Horizons program in the New York City school system put into action and the implementation that was initially thought to be a success.

Kozol gives the reader a comment that was made by the U.S. secretary of health, education, and welfare showing his approval of the program whereby the U.S. secretary says that the program was the greatest single experience that was implemented in a Harlem school. (Pg. 189) However, the researcher found out seven years later no measurable improvement of participating children in the academic achievement, in a follow-up study of the children who were in junior high, the research could not find a meaningful differences between the children who attended segregated schools on this program and those in segregated schools that were not part of this experimental program. (Pg. 189)

The main factor in the program’s decline was the due to the reduction in funding after the program was enacted in its initial year.  Other cities across the nation with comparable ethnic demographics like; Berkeley, Syracuse, Seattle, Philadelphia, and Boston which were implanting similar programs were examined by the Civil Rights Commission but the commission continued to find “dismal failures." (Pg. 191)

There were a few notable school officials for several years who have been main bright spots, but the notable school officials lights were only shone for a brief time because of enormous stress and a no support from educational bureaucratic machine.

Kozol reminds us about Joe Clark, a New Jersey principal, who turned around a school because of his leadership and as a result was featured as a main subject in a film. Joe Clark walked the hallways of his school with his baseball bat! In addition, he threw out the students who making the lowest scores and those who were trouble makers and as a result the school's average test scores improved drastically. However, later Joe Clark left his school that was performing better in the test scores and become the director of a juvenile detention center (Pg. 199), and as a result of him moving away from New Jersey school, in 1990 the students New Jersey where Joe Clark was the principal were reading "below sixth grade." (Pg. 200)

 In 1991, which was only 14 years ago, the united States  President George H. Bush introduced education plan known as America 2000, which was known  as “a nine-year crusade”  and which was supposed to radically reform the  schools  in the nation. (Pg. 201) However, the states and local districts were provided with few substantial new resources to achieve these goals. Pg. 202

And, therefore, even before President George H. Bush left office, many of his goals had more or less failed miserably. To correct the failed plan that had failed, Ten years later, President George W. Bush introduced another education plan which was ambitious called “No child left behind.” (Pg. 203)

The cost of building safe and new schools for the children in urban districts or rebuilding those that can be salvaged, was estimated at well above $100 billion by the General Accounting Office and,  if the installation of the  Internet access network was included, the estimate was at about $200 billion…. The president allocated only half the funds that Congress authorized to build or modernize the schools that were located in the urban districts to meet the terms of the “No child left behind” new law. (Pg. 205)

In perhaps the most surprising fiscal limits that the president has put in place and was a major breach of faith by the Bush administration, led to a sharp decline of the proportion of low-income children that were served by Head Start programs. (Pg. 209)

Kozol indicates that  Mr. Bush and his associates promoted there lies as the “scientific” model of measurement and accountability that more consciously was supposed to apply the practices of business management to promote efficiency in operation of school, a classroom, or even the  district, while, in general, overlooking fundamental questions about inequality in public schools.

Kozol's extensively contained a collection of newspaper clippings from the past years that contained names like; “Focus Schools," "Blue Ribbon Schools," "Pilot Schools," "Lighthouse Schools,"  "Exemplary Schools," "Quality Schools," "Model Schools," "Total Quality Schools," and many more. All of these names were highly praised and but offered only limited successes. The leaders who are dealing with desegregation have indicated that that the black and Hispanic student’s social policy in the United States has been rolled back to more than 50 years to where the nation stood in 1954.  (Pg. 213-214)

Chapter nine discusses Invitations to Resistance. The reader is confronted with a question about what as a society does need to do to alter these realities. (Pg. 221)

Kozol suggest that nearly ten years ago, Jack White, a columnist for Time magazine wrote that before the nation gave up on integration, the nation should have tried it.

Several suggestions are then given in the book for bringing about change.  One of the several suggestions given is about to convince the federal government or state and local governments to give money to home-builders located in the suburbs in order to provide affordable housing located near reasonable school zones. Also, a group known as the "Fair-minded citizens" could use their influence to pressure local committees to rezone school districts and this could help the school district break the pattern of segregated housing system.

Improving the transportation and the distribution of information concerning school choice, along with the elimination of acceptance exclusions linked to "disability, behavior, or low levels of achievement" are also suggestion that could offer a necessary step to solve desegregation.  (Pg. 227) Also, starting integration earlier in the elementary grades would make it much easier for children because children like being with each other because at earlier age, students cannot fathom the difference in their skin color.

 Kozol reminds us that Brown vs. the Board of Education decision in the 1954 which is on everyone's minds today was not about raising test the scores, but was about giving the minority children access to the majority culture in the nation and allow them an opportunity to succeed as adults.

In Chapter ten posses a question; A National Horror Hidden in Plain View: Why Not a National Response?

Kozol notes that inner city schools with mostly minority students do not get enough funding as other schools with majority white children.  For example the funding differences is shown by Kozol in page 246 where a typical class of poor children, depending on the state, which receives funding of $23,000 to $65,000 lesser than children in a schools with majority white children.

In page 256-58 Kozol says that at the time the book was written, in Mississippi, the state average spending per-pupil was only $6,000 as compared to the average funding in per-pupil Connecticut of $11,000. Kozol suggest that even with the adjustments for higher cost of living in the state of

Connecticut, the funding that was given to Mississippi was way too low or less and this put Mississippi student’s way behind.  With all his differences, there is no response or outcry from the nation concerning this big discrepancies concerning unequal school funding in minority schools.

 Kozol main argument is that if the federal government expects students to meet the law of No Child Left Behind, then the federal government main obligation should be to provide the money so that the law can be a success.

Kozol indicates that the discrimination between the wealthy schools and the poor schools in public education is an alarming violation of basic ethics that should be questioned by the nation!

In chapter eleven talks about the Deadly Lies. The Deadly Lies refers to the feeling that our education system is doing well, particularly since President Bush introduced the No Child Left Behind policy. Kozol poses a question concerning what is the healthiest and wisest way to educate the children and wonders if it is through No Child Left Behind testing system.

Most  people believes that the best  answer lies in creating smaller schools and secure the schools in a small neighborhood and in a large city so that the students and teachers can feel secure.

Kozol notes that it is easy for the nation to ignore the major disparities in our nation's schools as we continue to teach in our own isolated worlds. However, Kozol says that most parts of the nation, there are classrooms where students really like coming to school, and where excellent learning takes place and even some principals are willing to allow their teachers teach the way they see fit for their students to learn best.

Kozol warns that the longer “Deadly Lies” goes on, the further these two roads divide of the ethnic groups and social classes in our nation’s public schools, the harder the nation will find a place of common ground. (Pg. 273)

Even though the achievement gap between white and black children continued to narrow for the last three decades until 1980s… the gap started to widen again in the early 1990s. (Pg. 280)

The title “Deadly Lies” is clearly articulated in Washington, in September 2004 when Kozol went to challenge the soft bigotry of low expectations,” and while in Washington, Kozol heard the president say many times in his campaign during his reelection.  The president said that No Child Left Behind legislation is working. The president reaffirmed that the legislation is making a difference.

 Kozol warns that it is one of those deadly lies which, is accepted by majority of numbers of Americans as due to sheer repetition by politician who are running for office, and therefore the public buys into a rough approximation of the truth. (Pg. 284)

Last but not least, chapter twelve explores the Treasured Places. Kozol indicates that schools can survive without rubric charts and numbered standardized-listings hanged on the school walls. However, schools cannot survive without good teachers.

In addition, there is no curriculum approved from the state officials or by Washington that can make the schools survive without good teachers who enjoy their work and the school children they inspire day by day who are constantly facing unpredictable world.

Kozol urges teachers and principals not allow the beautiful profession they have chosen to be hijacked by those who know nothing about the hearts of children.

Kozol ended the book with the description a school in Durham, North Carolina that he visited and found the school children in Durham studying worms.

Kozol clearly describes a classroom with integrated curriculum and the children were learning phonics while they were writing in context proficiently and the teacher said that teaching in Durham was all about protecting joy for teaching and in the classroom.

The teacher stressed that even though the pressure was on the teachers to ratchet up the scores, the teachers struggled to protect the sense of joy inside them in order to create the joy for the students.

 Kozol was impressed by Durham school and noted that it was a schools where teachers and their children were given chance to poke at worms, and the students were able to dive into the satisfaction of uncertainty that was supposed to be defended from the bureaucratic interventions of the overconfident.

The Epilogue finally deals with the views of Roger Wilkins who served as an editorial writer at The Washington Post, and as an assistant attorney general of the United States, and a professor of history and American culture at George Mason University.

Roger Wilkins suggest that in order to solve the struggle for racial and economic equality, American people sometimes have to ask for something that they know they may not get.  And still the American people have to ask for racial and economic equality and   it is still worth fighting for and, even if the American people do not believe that they will see racial and economic equality in their lifetime, they have got to hold up racial and economic equality so that the generation that comes after this generation will take racial and economic equality from the current American hands and, in their next generation’s time, see racial and economic equality as a goal worth fighting for again. (Pg. 316)

Next, in the epilogue, Kozol describes the change that has taken place to various schools he had visited since he finished the book. According to Kozol, some of the school seems like they have really improved. 

Specifically Kozol describes the Arts and Technology High School in Manhattan, where the teachers have energy, which were formed when Martin Luther King School was divided into four smaller schools.

Finally, Kozol quotes John Lewis who is a congressman who says that America needs to be a family that sits down for dinner at a table. Kozol used this analogy to say that American children of all races need to be together in school from time they are young, no matter how hopeless we may feel about integration of American schools.

Reviewing this book brought up the most disturbing circumstances in American school system.  The problem of poverty-stricken schools can be solved by:  reducing class size; building safe and secure schools, funding high-quality preschool programs, and giving teachers competitive salaries.

Kozol is a apologies for minority children failures and is a dedicated freelance researcher into minority schools and exposes the truth that the minority children are innately ill-equipped to successfully compete in the modern technological society.

Kozol lamented the resegregation of schools by using busses to integrate schools which failed to improve the minority children’s academic performance because the parents wanted to live among people who looked like themselves.

Kozol discusses also how some schools cheated during test and children who were constantly drilled endlessly before test were give and even; forgoing music lessons, gymnastics, art, history studies, science and many other crucial subjects.

Kozol suggest that the standardized testing reform movement has led to narrow, unforgiving, and unbending system of teaching and as resulted into society neglect or abuse of the youngest members. Even though Kozol supports “the daily struggle of courageous teachers and principals who are resisting the bureaucratic and scripted schooling system in urban schools and minority schools,” it will take the like-minded politicians, educators, new civil rights movement, and advocates to eradicate it; in order to full file at last the promises that were made in some 50 years ago concerning teaching young citizens without discriminating against their skin color.

Kozol presents clearly poignant and sharp pictures of the indignities minorities and vulnerable individuals endure.

Shame of the nation has implications for criminal justice system. Throughout American existence, the mantle of inherent innocence never covered equally all children in American justice system. Unlike white kids, black and brown children were really treated the same as whites or given benefit of doubt in juvenile court system despite several justice reforms that were enacted by world war two.

Overwhelming majority of black and browns who are in the prison now were earlier in life themselves victims of unspeakable broken education system.

The civil rights movement during 1960s, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and has enhanced instead significantly benefited Asian Americans instead of blacks in areas like education, immigration, and criminal justice. As a result, at the expense of blacks, the Asian Americans have used education advantage to raise their own socioeconomic status.

When young minority children have poor education, when they grow up, the politicians will use moral panic when running for office by saying that poor black presents a physical danger to all people. Also, when these poorly educated minority children grow up they are likely to involve themselves with drug abuse, drug trafficking, and violence due to limited opportunities in the communities they live in. Then, once caught by the law enforcement because of drug crisis, the escalation rate of incarcerations is inevitable within a segregated and white dominated nation.

Due to poor education foundation that the black minorities get while they are young, the white America has unequivocally made adult black man its bogeyman and women as universal “bad-woman” and the criminal justice system is in full force to contain and fight the “black menace” both black women and men unlike their white men and women, are going to prison for guilt of drugs related, petty property or violence, violation of probation conditions or parole.

I would recommend that the justice system should pass legislations to allow minority families to live in housing  within a certain walking distance of schools which are serving white children, proving minority women and men child care programs to enable those who had unplanned pregnancies or  fallen behind due to segregated schooling system to finish high schools or colleges of their choice, also recommend that the Criminal Justice System to reevaluate the way it treats the  Juveniles minority children of black ethnic and nationalities.



Works Cited


Kozol, Jonathan. The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America. New York: Crown, 2005. Print.

    • Thomas G
      Thomas G

      I would recommend that the justice system should pass legislations to allow minority families to live in housing  within a certain walking distance of schools which are serving white children, proving minority women and men child care programs to enable those who had unplanned pregnancies or  fallen behind due to segregated schooling system to finish high schools or colleges of their choice, also recommend that the Criminal Justice System to reevaluate the way it treats the  Juveniles minority children of black ethnic and nationalities.

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